INTRODUCTION TO OIL AND GAS

THE HISTORY OF HYDROCARBON
Mr. Cipi Armandita
Until now, it was believed that the hydrocarbon (petroleum) resulting from the deposition of sediments rich in organic matter (organic rich sediments) in a basin containing organic materials derived from biological material (organic theory). Organic rich sedimen can be mature and regenerating hydrocarbons when heated by the ambient temperature of 80o - 250o C. The heat for the process of maturation can be generated from a pile of thick sedimentary material 2-5 km, the presence of geothermal (heat flow, magma activity). One type is the type of kerogen deposition. In this type of kerogen there are three types of depositional environments. Type I is the stratified freshwater lakes. Type II is the threshold of deep water basins on the continental slope. Type III is lagoonal, deltaic, coastral swamps basins of restrinced circulation on continental shelves.

PETROLEUM SYSTEM
The petroleum system framework is defined as a volume of rocks (mostly sedimentary rocks) containing hydrocarbon and charged by a single souce rock. Petroleum system consist of source rock, reservoir, trap, and dynamic (migration, critical time, and preservation). Critical time is essential for the formation of the oil in a petroleum system.
Hydrocarbons derived from organic matter which deposited in a very deep layer as well as influenced by temperature and high pressure. Rock where hydrocarbons originated what is called the bed rock. Reservoir is a place to collect and entrapment of oil and natural gas beneath the surface, a porous rock and fluid flow can continue covered by rocks that can not continue the flow of the fluid.
There are two important elements in the reservoir, the porosity and permeability. Porosity shows the volume of oil that can be contained in the reservoir. Permeability indicates how quickly the oil flow through the reservoir. At first reservoir just look around the edge of the continent, but with the development of science and technology today has even sought until the reservoir into the deep ocean. 65% of the world's reservoirs are carbonate. The others can be a basement or fracture. The fractures can occur in igneous and metamorphic filled by organic material processed to mature and produce oil or gas. The existence of a reservoir is also controlled by the movement of tectonic plates.
A trap is any geometric arrangement of rock that permits significant accumulation of oil or gas, or both, in the subsurface. The petroleum exploration industry is primarily concerned with the search and recognition of trap. Some example of traps are anticline, basement drape, fault-clip closure, diagnetic trap, salt-related traps and stratigraphic pinchouts. Oil and gas can be accumulated in a trap because there is a cap rock that seal the oil and gas.

MAJOR ROLE IN THE ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM GEOPHYSICISTS
Major role in the analysis of petroleum geophysicists provide an overview of the system is below ground level that has meaning in geology. It can be obtained through several geophysical techniques, such as seismic data, gravity and magnetic anomalies to obtain geological cross-section through the data processing, using a computer.
Indonesia need geophysicists who work hard. It deals with many issues concerning the oil industry in Indonesia. In recent years production continued to decline so the oil reserves also declined. In addition to the various licensing and non-technical constraints make the production cost becomes very expensive. Non-technical costs are more expensive than the cost of the technical. During this exploration activities are still concentrated in the western part of Indonesia. This is due to the difficulty of exploration in the eastern part of Indonesia. In addition, many foreign companies doing exploration while still a lot of human resources in Indonesia itself can be empowered. Indonesia need independence of the country to cultivate the potential of abundant resources.
To become a geophysicist, someone must has some important competencies. Among them are the ability to think analytically and creatively, the ability to think spatially in making geological model, master of computer science, the ability to manage something uncertain, knowledge of economics to decision-making, as well as the ability to work in teams. Besides the most important competency is the ability to express ideas and speak English. In addition to the necessary technical capabilities are also soft skills to become an expert in geoscience, including the initiative, ethics and integrity, enthusiasm, adaptability, communication skills, and the ability to acquire and process the latest issues.

To be an expert geoscience takes several steps, including the geoscience education at the college to provide the basic knowledge, then after graduation required professional training in the industry and eventually obtained an expert geoscience. Therefore we need the cooperation between universities and industry. To become an expert geoscience takes an average of 8 years calculated since graduation from college. The 8-year time period is the time for proving the ability of their self.

Resume from Mr. Cipi Armandita ShorCourse (3/8/2014)


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