APPLICATION OF GEOSCIENCE IN OIL & GAS INDUSTRY: FROM BASIC TO APPLIED GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS



There were 3 main topics that discuss in this course which are Basic Exploration in Geophysics, Pertroleum Geology and Formation Evaluation. 

BASIC EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS
Greetings from our Faculty Advisor Mr Alamsyah M. Juwono
Exploration is the search for commercial deposits of useful minerals, including hydrocarbon, geothermal, resources, etc (Sheriff,1990). 
Geophysics has an important role to search for new energy resources, especially for oil and gas industry geophysicist use Seismic method. The agent of change in Seismic method are noise, acquisition, and earth effect. In seismic interpretation, knowledge of rock physics is used to understand the relations between the physical properties of reservoir rocks and seismic properties by applying forward or backward modelling technique.The three main physical properties of the reservoir rocks are the matrix, the porosity, and the fluids filling the pores, whereas four main seismic properties are amplitude, reflection time, phase, and frequency. 

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY
After the exploration using Seismic method we began to interpretation it for  searching of petroleum system. Petroleum system has 5 important elements:
Source rockRocks that has actually generated & expelled hydrocarbons usually fine grain sedimentary rocks. Mayor types of source rock : shale, cosl, marl, and carbonate.
MigrationThe moving of oil & gas from its source rocks to reservoir rocks. Primary or secondary
Reservoir rocksPermeable & porous rocks which is filled by hydrocarbon & water in its pore. The rock could be : sandstone and carbonate or other rocks such as shale, volcanic rocks, farctured basements.
Cap rocksImpermeable rocks medium that isolates a reservoir and retains petroleum. Example: shale, anhydrite, gypsum, marl, etc.
TrapsGeologic features in which petroleum can accumulate. Structural, stratigraphic or combination.

FORMATION EVALUATION
Porosity
• Porosity is the ratio between the empty space of a rock to rock volume itself.
• Porosity Total: is the ratio of the total number of pores in comparison with the volume bulknya
• Effective Porosity: is the ratio of pores (empty space) that are interconnected in comparison to the 
bulk volume 
Water saturation (Sw)
• Saturation is the ratio of the volume of a fluid in the pores of the rock where the fluid is.
• Saturation of water in a rock is the large volume of water than the total volume of the rock pores.

(Resume Shortcourse April, 18th 2015)

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